Regional Governances: Models and Performance’s Evaluation
In the last thirty years Italy has witnessed a process of the decentring of regulatory and management powers for social policies from the state to the sub-national, and often regional, level. Starting from an analysis of regional welfare is useful, not only for analysing an important dimension of welfare organisation (most health expenditure is managed at this level and much of the resources and control of other social policies is in the hands of the Regions), but also to understand more generally how the regional political and socio-economic systems are changing. More territorialised welfare systems built to a greater extent around the sub-national level of government raise the problem of territorial difference and inequalities, particularly in a country like Italy, where these features are already evident. The article focuses on how different the performance levels are for systems of regional welfare and what might explain them, trying to evaluate the role of dimensions such as political orientation, models of governance, the level of economic development and the more socio-cultural aspects such as social capital.
Governing Welfare at Local Level: a Note on Policy, Bureaucracy and Coalitions of Interests
The article is written from a particular point of view, that of a regional administrator who has also had many years of research experience in Italian universities, studying welfare systems, and offers a reasoned account of some key critical aspects of the creation of social policies at regional level. It thus offers an inside analysis of the regional administrative machine, using the techniques and tools of university research. It illustrates some of the main points involved with making social policy at regional level, connected with intervention models and philosophies, the characteristics of the administrators, and the relation between bureaucracy and policy and between the various levels of government.
Tax Federalism: which Financing for which Functions
This paper discusses the implementation of «tax federalism» in Italy, concentrating on the link that should exist beteen the type of legislative and administrative functions attributed to the decentred bodies, how they are financed, and the plan for equal distribution. Different views are compared concerning citizen solidarity, the autonomy of territorial bodies and investing them with responsibility, and behind these views emerges the redistributive conflict between the North and South of the country. Taking the problems connected with defining and financing essential service levels as an example, the article shows how the principle problems are not connected so much with preparing a delegated law, on which the general guiding principles are often open to different interpretations, as identifying how to implement it effectively.
The Importance of The «Standard Cost» in the Federalist Reform of Welfare
The article examines one of the components of the projects to implement the federalist reform of the Italian system: the recourse to standard costs as a criterion instead of standard needs and traditional levels of expenditure. Starting from the constatation that, for all the differences in the plans for implementing article 119 of the Constitution, they have been based on the idea of standard costs, the article seeks to bring out the technical, methodological and political complexity of the way the new system has been put into pratice, partly through recourse to experiences - particularly in the health sector - that might provide useful indications. It also draws attention to how much an apparently auxiliary aspect, like standard costs, contributes decisively to defining the type of federalism that will be implemented in the country, and, where welfare policies are concerned, how it might constitute one of the dividing lines between a system that reduces territorial autonomy and one that guarantees it, but incorporating the risks of less control of the already dramatic differences.
Regionalism Italian Style? Some Considerations Starting from the Financial Dimension of Regional Social Policies
This contribution analyses the present state of social regionalism in Italy through the financial dimension, following the profound changes that have overtaken the territorial organisation of responsibilities and functions. What emerges is a picture with a series of persistent features, rooted in certain historical factors that have accompanied the role of the Regions in social policies, but also some signs of change that indicate a desire on the part of the Regions to take the centre of the stage. The combination of these two elements offers possibile opportunities, but also risks that may be connected to the current territorial weighting of social policies towards the Regions.